CLINICAL GENETICS

Fragile X syndrome (FXS)- Introduction, Frequency, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment

Introduction: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a genetic disorder that causes a variety of developmental issues such as learning impairments and cognitive impairment. It is caused by a mutation in the FMR1 gene, which is responsible for producing a protein called fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). This protein plays a critical role in the

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In vitro fertilization (IVF)

IVF- Definition, Prevalence, Procedure, Risks, Medications  

Introduction: Causes of Infertility: Infertility is a complex issue that can have various causes, both in males and females. Here are some common causes of infertility: Female Factors Male Factors Unexplained Infertility In some cases, the cause of infertility cannot be identified despite thorough medical evaluations. Unexplained infertility is diagnosed when all standard tests and

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Infertility

Infertility- Definition, Prevalence, Types, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment

Introduction: Infertility is the inability to conceive after a certain period of time trying to become pregnant (usually one year). It can be caused by a variety of factors, including hormonal imbalances, structural problems with the reproductive organs, and certain medical conditions. In some cases, the cause of infertility is unknown. Prevalence: Types: It’s important

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Maternal serum marker test

Maternal Serum Marker Test- Definition, Types, Trimester, Risks, Benefits

Introduction: Types of Serum marker: Maternal serum marker tests are blood tests that are used to screen for certain chromosomal abnormalities or birth defects in a developing fetus. The tests measure the levels of specific substances, known as markers, in the blood of the pregnant woman. Elevated levels of certain markers can indicate an increased

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Amniocentesis

Amniocentesis- Definition, Procedure, Risks, Benefits

Introduction: Procedure: Amniocentesis is typically performed between the 15th and 20th weeks of pregnancy. The procedure is usually done in a doctor’s office or clinic, and takes about 15-20 minutes. Here is an overview of the steps involved in an amniocentesis: Preparation: The patient will be asked to lie on an exam table on the

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Breast cancer

Breast Cancer- Symptoms, Causes, Stages, Diagnosis, Prevention

Introduction: Cancer is a broad term for a group of disorders characterized by abnormal cell proliferation with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.  It is developed as a result of mutations, or aberrant alterations, in the genes that regulate the proper growth and development of the cell. Breast cancer

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DNA-FINGER-PRINTING

DNA fingerprinting- Definition, Principle, Steps, Applications

DNA fingerprinting, also known as DNA profiling or genetic fingerprinting, is a forensic technique that analyzes specific regions of an individual’s DNA to create a unique genetic profile, enabling the identification and comparison of individuals based on their DNA patterns, which has widespread applications in criminal investigations, paternity testing, and genetic research.

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