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  • Determining the isoelectric point (pI) of an amino acid

    Introduction: Isoelectric point (pI) is the pH at which the net electric charge on a molecule/protein is zero. At its pI, the molecule/protein is electrically neutral that the molecule at its pI exists as a zwitterion with an equal number of positive charges (from protonated amino groups) and negative charges (from deprotonated carboxyl groups). At…


  • Reproduction in organism: Importance, Types, Asexual reproduction, Sexual reproduction, Fertilization, Pollination

    Introduction: Reproduction is an integral feature of all living beings by which a living being produces produce new individuals of the same species. This natural process is necessary for the survival and increase in the population of a species. If organisms do not reproduce, their population decreases and species will become extinct.  Importance: Types: There…


  • Study of Specific Activity of salivary Amylase

    Principle: Activity of enzyme is defined as the micromoles of product formed per ml of enzyme solution under the optimum conditions. The determination of specific activity of enzyme involves two steps estimation of protein by F.C. Methos and estimation of product (glucose) by DNS method. The FC method is one of the best methods for…


  • Pathogenic Microorganisms: Introduction, Types, Source of infection, symptoms and Diseases

    Introduction: Pathogens are defined as organism that are taxonomically widely diverse that cause diseases to their respective hosts with the severity of symptoms of diseases. It comprises not only viruses’ bacteria and fungi but also unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes. Generally, depending on their relationship to the host, microorganism can be classified as saprophytes and parasites.…


  • Reverse vaccinology (RV): Introduction, Principle, Methods, Application, Traditional vaccinology

    Introduction: History: Principle: This computational approach is a branch of vaccinomics that is used to design vaccines predicting epitopes from the genetic information of the pathogens. The principle of reverse vaccinology involves the availability of the whole genome sequence of the organism and uses computational analysis to identify genes that encode proteins on the surface…


  • Solid Waste Management: Introduction, Types, Methods, Management, Factors

    Introduction: The unavoidable by-product of human activities results in a solid waste which tends to increase with rapid urbanization, improved living standards and changing consumption patterns. It is the unwanted or useless solid materials generated from combined residential, industrial and commercial activities in a given area.  Solid waste management a critical component that include collection,…