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  • Neo- Darwinism or Modern Synthetic Theory of evolution: Introduction, Mutation, Genetic recombination, Natural selection, Genetic drift

    Introduction: Darwin’s theory of origin of new species was supported by a number of scientists like Wallance, Haeckel, Weismann, Mendel etc. These supporters are known as the Neo-Darwinians, and the concept is called Neo-Darwinism. The modern synthetic theory explains the genetic basis of the adaptation of a population to new environmental conditions. It includes the…


  • Darwinism or theory of Natural Selection: Introduction, Facts, Objections

    Introduction: Charles Robert Darwin (1809-1882), an English naturalist publishes his famous book “The Origin of Species by Natural Selection” in 1859. Darwin’s theory of natural selection is based on a mass of accurate observations and prolonged experimental led the whole scientific world to believe on the doctrine of evolution. Darwinism is based on several facts…


  • Lamarck, Evolution, and the Inheritance of Acquired Characters: Facts, Examples, Criticism

    Theories of organic evolution: Organic evolution refers to the progression of life forms from simpler to more complex as a result of environmental changes and other factors. Evolution describes changes in the shape and behavior of organisms as they pass down through generations. It refers to the changes that occur within a population’s ancestry from…


  • Biopesticides: Introduction, classification, Benefits, Disadvantages

    Introduction: Biopesticides are certain types of natural, biologically occurring pesticides that are used to control various agricultural pests and pathogens. It is derived from such natural materials as animals, plants, certain minerals, and microorganisms such as bacteria, cyanobacteria, and microalgae. It is a biological agent, class of pesticides that tend to pose fewer risks than…


  • pH Meter Calibration

    Basic parts: A pH meter is a laboratory device that measures the acidity or alkalinity of a solution. pH is the unit of measure that the degree of acidity or alkalinity of the any given test solution that is measured on a scale of 0 to 14. The PH meter consist of three basic parts:…


  • The Glyoxylate cycle/Shunt: Introduction, Steps, Importance, Significance

    Introduction: It is also known as glyoxylate shunt (GS), was identified by Kornberg and Krebs in 1957, explaining how organisms could grow on acetate as the sole carbon source (Kornberg and Krebs, 1957). The glyoxylate cycle, an anabolic pathway, is a variation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, is an anabolic pathway occurring in plants, bacteria,…