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  • Bioremediation: Introduction, Contaminates, Types, Microorganisms, Strategies, Advantages

    Introduction: Type of contaminants: Microorganisms in Bioremediation: Aerobic bacteria Many of these bacteria grow in the presence of oxygen that use the contaminant as the sole source of carbon and energy. It degrades pesticides and hydrocarbons, both alkanes and polyaromatic compounds. Examples: Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, Sphingomonas, Rhodococcus, and Mycobacterium Methanotrophs/ Methylotrophs Bacteria that convert methane into…


  • Biogas plant: Introduction, Components, Substrate, Microbiology of Biogas

    Introduction: Substrate: Components: Reception area A digester (or fermentation tank) Fig: Components of Biogas Plant A gas holder It is an air sealed tank preferably made in steel, provided with a gas outlet monitor that permits the biogas to come out of the system and produce energy and heat. It collects the gas generated during…


  • Glycosylation: Introduction, Types, Importance

    Introduction: Types:  O- Glycosylation Occurs post- translationally at certain serine and threonine residue takes place in Golgi apparatus. O-linked oligosaccharides have a glycosidic bond to the oxygen atom of the hydroxyl group of amino acid including serine (Ser) or threonine (Thr) residues and N-Acetyl galactosamine (GalNAc) as the sugar at the reducing end of the…


  • Punnett square: Introduction, construction, Applications

    Introduction: The Punnett square is a table that show all the expected percentage of different genotypes in the offspring outcomes for a genetic cross between two individuals with known genotype. It is named after British geneticist, Reginald C. Punnett (1875–1967). It consists of a square which is divided into four quadrants to predict the chances…


  • IBRO APRC Neuroscience school: 2024 “Psychophysiology of Neurological Disorders – Genomics and Non-Genomics Perception”

    The Neuroscience Society of Nepal (NSN), in collaboration with the International Brain Research Organization (IBRO), organized the fourth Neuroscience School from April 24 to May 8, 2024, in Kathmandu, Nepal. The theme was “Psychophysiology of Neurological Disorders – Genomics and Non-Genomics Perception,” focusing on the genetic and non-genetic factors influencing neurological disorders. The event featured…


  • Cytoskeleton (CSK): Introduction, Components, Filaments, Protein, Diseases

    Introduction: Cytoskeleton (CSK) is a complex, three-dimensional, dynamic network of interlinking protein filaments found in the cytoplasm of all cells which can be defined simply as “structural frame/ support of cells” (Cyto = Cell + Skeleton = structural support/ frame). It is a complex network of protein filaments or fibres along with motor proteins that…