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  • Site-Directed Mutagenesis (SDM)

    Introduction: It is an invitro technique used to mutate one or more bases within a plasmid. Likewise, this procedure is to create specific, targeted changes in double stranded plasmid DNA with modified sequences for examining the importance of specific residues in protein structure and function. It is also called site-specific mutagenesis or oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis. There…


  • Lytic cycle of bacteriophage (Virus)

    Introduction: Bacteriophages are viruses that only infect bacteria which is also known as phages. They have a unique structural and life cycle and are highly abundant and diverse in nature such as water, soil, and the human body. It can infect and replicate within bacterial cells. The term “bacteriophage” originates from the Greek words “bacterio,”…


  • Viruses- Introduction, History, Features, Classification, Diseases

    Introduction: A virus is a microscopic infectious agent that can cause diseases which is able to utilize the synthetic machinery of the living cell of another organism for its multiplication. Virus are the smallest living organism ranging from about 20nm to 300nm that are about 50 times smaller than bacteria approximately.  They are too small…


  • Protocol for Gram staining: Background, Purpose, Equipment, Steps

    Background: Gram staining is a key technique in microbiology that allows bacteria to be classified into two groups: Gram-positive and Gram-negative. This staining method, developed by Hans Christian Gram in the late 1800s, gives vital insights into bacterial cell wall composition and has become a cornerstone of bacterial identification and classification. The differential staining is…


  • Bacteria: History, Taxonomy, Structure, Morphology, Functions, Nutrition

    Introduction: Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that belong to the domain Bacteria. They are one of the most abundant and diverse kinds of life on Earth, and can be found in a variety of habitats. These microscopic organisms have a distinct cellular structure and a remarkable ability for adaptation and survive in a variety of environments,…


  • Transpiration- Types, Measurement, Mechanism, Factors, Significance, Advantages

    Transpiration- Types, Measurement, Mechanism, Factors, Significance, Advantages

    Introduction: The process of the loss of water from the internal tissues of the living plants in the form of vapor the exposed parts of the plants is regarded as transpiration. Plant absorbs large amount of water from the soil through the root hair but only small amount is utilized in different metabolic activities. Types:…