MICROBIOLOGY

Biopesticides: Introduction, classification, Benefits, Disadvantages

Introduction: Biopesticides are certain types of natural, biologically occurring pesticides that are used to control various agricultural pests and pathogens. It is derived from such natural materials as animals, plants, certain minerals, and microorganisms such as bacteria, cyanobacteria, and microalgae. It is a biological agent, class of pesticides that tend to pose fewer risks than […]

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Pathogenic Microorganisms: Introduction, Types, Source of infection, symptoms and Diseases

Introduction: Pathogens are defined as organism that are taxonomically widely diverse that cause diseases to their respective hosts with the severity of symptoms of diseases. It comprises not only viruses’ bacteria and fungi but also unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes. Generally, depending on their relationship to the host, microorganism can be classified as saprophytes and parasites.

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Reverse vaccinology (RV): Introduction, Principle, Methods, Application, Traditional vaccinology

Introduction: History: Principle: This computational approach is a branch of vaccinomics that is used to design vaccines predicting epitopes from the genetic information of the pathogens. The principle of reverse vaccinology involves the availability of the whole genome sequence of the organism and uses computational analysis to identify genes that encode proteins on the surface

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Solid Waste Management: Introduction, Types, Methods, Management, Factors

Introduction: The unavoidable by-product of human activities results in a solid waste which tends to increase with rapid urbanization, improved living standards and changing consumption patterns. It is the unwanted or useless solid materials generated from combined residential, industrial and commercial activities in a given area.  Solid waste management a critical component that include collection,

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Bio fertilizer: Introduction, Types, Applications

Introduction: It is a substance which contains living microorganisms which, when applied to seed, plant surfaces, or soil, colonizes the rhizosphere or the interior of the plant and promotes growth by enhancing the supply, availability, accessibility of several primary nutrients to the host plant. Bacteria, fungi, and mycorrhizae, belonging to the Bacillus, Lactobacillus, Azotobacter, Pseudomonas,

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Entamoeba histolytica: Morphology, Life Cycle, Pathogenesis, Clinical manifestation, Diagnosis

Introduction: It is a common protozoan parasite found in the large intestine of human. It is one of the leading parasitic causes of death in developing countries  It causes amoebic dysentery and liver abscess in human Morphology: The parasite occurs in 3 forms Trophozoite Precyst Cyst Life Cycle: Life cycle of histolytica is relatively simple which is

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Staining of Microorganism: Negative Staining, Simple Staining, Differential Staining, Simple Staining, Endospore Staining, Lactophenol cotton blue mounting

Introduction: The microbial cells are very small and transparent in nature, so it is very difficult to observe them under microscope. Staining is uses in order to understand the structure and chemical nature of microorganism and make visible. Thus, staining is the method of artificially coloring microorganism to allow it to visualize under the microscope.

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Sterilization Techniques: Introduction, Physical and Chemical method, Applications

Introduction: Microorganisms are ubiquitous. Microbes grow and multiply under favorable conditions. In laboratory, for the purposes of study, they are allowed to grow and multiply. So, it always becomes necessary to remove or destroy microbes from materials or from areas because they are responsible for causing contamination, decay, and infection. This is the main object

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Cell Differentiation in plants and Animals: Factors, Level, and Mechanism of differentiation

Introduction: Cell and cytoplasmic contents may become so organized as to perform specialized functions that another cell don to perform. The change by means of which such specialization is achieved is know as differentiation. The event of differentiation is accomplished by changes which occur in embryonic tissues of plants and animals. Zygote is a unicellular

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Cell Senescence and Death: Introduction, Somatic mutation, Senescence, Free radicals, Apoptosis

Introduction: Cell senescence can be defined as a process occurring in all members of population, after maturity, involving progressive decline in vital capacities of the organism termination in death. Senescence is also considered as death. The science that studies biological caused of growth. At the cellular level senescence can be studied on the basis of

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