MICROBIOLOGY

Sterilization Techniques: Introduction, Physical and Chemical method, Applications

Introduction: Microorganisms are ubiquitous. Microbes grow and multiply under favorable conditions. In laboratory, for the purposes of study, they are allowed to grow and multiply. So, it always becomes necessary to remove or destroy microbes from materials or from areas because they are responsible for causing contamination, decay, and infection. This is the main object […]

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Cell Differentiation in plants and Animals: Factors, Level, and Mechanism of differentiation

Introduction: Cell and cytoplasmic contents may become so organized as to perform specialized functions that another cell don to perform. The change by means of which such specialization is achieved is know as differentiation. The event of differentiation is accomplished by changes which occur in embryonic tissues of plants and animals. Zygote is a unicellular

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Cell Senescence and Death: Introduction, Somatic mutation, Senescence, Free radicals, Apoptosis

Introduction: Cell senescence can be defined as a process occurring in all members of population, after maturity, involving progressive decline in vital capacities of the organism termination in death. Senescence is also considered as death. The science that studies biological caused of growth. At the cellular level senescence can be studied on the basis of

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Linkage: Introduction, Concept, Types, Significances

Introduction: The tendency of genes to study together during inheritance and to retain their parental combination even in the offspring, because of the genes being located relatively close to each other, in the same chromosome is called linkage. The genes located on the same chromosome and inherited together are know as linked genes. Linked genes

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Cell Locomotion: Amoeboid locomotion, Flagellar and ciliary location

Introduction: Cell locomotion may involve movement of the entire cell or a portion of it, to the benefit of the organism. This is a biological phenomenon displayed o enable many roles such as feeding, digestion, reproduction, circulation and protection. A cell’s or unicellular organism’s locomotion is accomplished by the use of flagella, cilia, and, in

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Lytic cycle of bacteriophage (Virus): Introdcution, and Stages

Introduction: Bacteriophages are viruses that only infect bacteria which is also known as phages. They have a unique structural and life cycle and are highly abundant and diverse in nature such as water, soil, and the human body. It can infect and replicate within bacterial cells. The term “bacteriophage” originates from the Greek words “bacterio,”

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Viruses- Introduction, History, Features, Classification, Diseases

Introduction: A virus is a microscopic infectious agent that can cause diseases which is able to utilize the synthetic machinery of the living cell of another organism for its multiplication. Virus are the smallest living organism ranging from about 20nm to 300nm that are about 50 times smaller than bacteria approximately.  They are too small

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Protocol for Gram staining: Background, Purpose, Equipment, Steps

Background: Gram staining is a key technique in microbiology that allows bacteria to be classified into two groups: Gram-positive and Gram-negative. This staining method, developed by Hans Christian Gram in the late 1800s, gives vital insights into bacterial cell wall composition and has become a cornerstone of bacterial identification and classification. The differential staining is

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Bacteria: History, Taxonomy, Structure, Morphology, Functions, Nutrition

Introduction: Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that belong to the domain Bacteria. They are one of the most abundant and diverse kinds of life on Earth, and can be found in a variety of habitats. These microscopic organisms have a distinct cellular structure and a remarkable ability for adaptation and survive in a variety of environments,

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