Neo- Darwinism or Modern Synthetic Theory of evolution: Introduction, Mutation, Genetic recombination, Natural selection, Genetic drift

Introduction: Darwin’s theory of origin of new species was supported by a number of scientists like Wallance, Haeckel, Weismann, Mendel etc. These supporters are known as the Neo-Darwinians, and the concept is called Neo-Darwinism. The modern synthetic theory explains the genetic basis of the adaptation of a population to new environmental conditions. It includes the […]

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Darwinism or theory of Natural Selection: Introduction, Facts, Objections

Introduction: Charles Robert Darwin (1809-1882), an English naturalist publishes his famous book “The Origin of Species by Natural Selection” in 1859. Darwin’s theory of natural selection is based on a mass of accurate observations and prolonged experimental led the whole scientific world to believe on the doctrine of evolution. Darwinism is based on several facts

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Lamarck, Evolution, and the Inheritance of Acquired Characters: Facts, Examples, Criticism

Theories of organic evolution: Organic evolution refers to the progression of life forms from simpler to more complex as a result of environmental changes and other factors. Evolution describes changes in the shape and behavior of organisms as they pass down through generations. It refers to the changes that occur within a population’s ancestry from

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Biopesticides: Introduction, classification, Benefits, Disadvantages

Introduction: Biopesticides are certain types of natural, biologically occurring pesticides that are used to control various agricultural pests and pathogens. It is derived from such natural materials as animals, plants, certain minerals, and microorganisms such as bacteria, cyanobacteria, and microalgae. It is a biological agent, class of pesticides that tend to pose fewer risks than

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The Glyoxylate cycle/Shunt: Introduction, Steps, Importance, Significance

Introduction: It is also known as glyoxylate shunt (GS), was identified by Kornberg and Krebs in 1957, explaining how organisms could grow on acetate as the sole carbon source (Kornberg and Krebs, 1957). The glyoxylate cycle, an anabolic pathway, is a variation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, is an anabolic pathway occurring in plants, bacteria,

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Determining the isoelectric point (pI) of an amino acid

Introduction: Isoelectric point (pI) is the pH at which the net electric charge on a molecule/protein is zero. At its pI, the molecule/protein is electrically neutral that the molecule at its pI exists as a zwitterion with an equal number of positive charges (from protonated amino groups) and negative charges (from deprotonated carboxyl groups). At

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Reproduction in organism: Importance, Types, Asexual reproduction, Sexual reproduction, Fertilization, Pollination

Introduction: Reproduction is an integral feature of all living beings by which a living being produces produce new individuals of the same species. This natural process is necessary for the survival and increase in the population of a species. If organisms do not reproduce, their population decreases and species will become extinct.  Importance: Types: There

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Pathogenic Microorganisms: Introduction, Types, Source of infection, symptoms and Diseases

Introduction: Pathogens are defined as organism that are taxonomically widely diverse that cause diseases to their respective hosts with the severity of symptoms of diseases. It comprises not only viruses’ bacteria and fungi but also unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes. Generally, depending on their relationship to the host, microorganism can be classified as saprophytes and parasites.

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