INSTRUMENTATION

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR): Introduction, Principle, Instrumentation, Applications

Introduction: FT-IR is the preferred method of infrared spectroscopy. In infrared spectroscopy, IR radiation is passed through a sample in which some of the infrared radiation is absorbed by the sample while other are passed through transmitted. Principle: Instrumentation: The source Glowing black body is mainly source for the emission of infrared energy. This beam […]

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Mass spectrometry (MS): Introduction, Principle, Instrumentation, Applications

Introduction: It is an analytical tool which is used to measure the mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) of one or more molecules present in an analyte sample. Eventually, the measurement can be applied to calculate the molecular weight of the sample to quantify known compounds, and to determine structure and chemical properties of molecules. The preference for the term “mass

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Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy (ESR): Introduction, Principle, Instrumentation, Applications

Introduction: It is a technique which us ethe spring property of an electron which are in resonance.  It is based on the paramagnetic behavior of an electron which are in resonance. All molecules have an atom and every atom have a nucleus. Every nucleus contains proton and neutron. Neutron is neutral and proton is positively

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Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS): Introduction, Principle, Instrumentation, Applications

Introduction: It is an analytical technique used to determine the concentration of certain elements, metal atoms/ions in given sample. Metals which consist of 75% of earth chemical elements sometime also make a content as a contaminant in several components (mine. Foods, water, etc) Therefore, this technique uses the principle in which atoms (and ions) can

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Spectrophotometer: Introduction, Principle, Instrumentation, Types, Applications

Introduction: It is an instrument used to measure absorbance at various wavelengths which is composed of two units: a spectrometer and a photometer. Moreover, this is used to measures the number of photons (the intensity of light) absorbed after it passes through sample solution. Basically, the spectrometer is to use to produce light of any

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Microscopy: Introduction, Instrumentation, Types, Applications, Limitations

Introduction: Microscopy is a technique of using the microscope.  Microscopes are used to observe structures below the range of magnifies lens. A microscope is an optical instrument consisting of a lens or a combination of lens for obtaining magnified images. The main function of a microscope is to increase the magnification as well as to

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Inverted Microscope: Introduction, Principle, Parts, Applications, Maintenance

Introduction: It is similar to compound microscopes except that their components are placed in inverted order. The specimen is viewed from below and the source of light and condenser are positioned above the specimen. Light is directed down onto the stage/specimen in this design, and specimens in larger laboratory containers, such as flasks and Petri

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X-Ray Crystallography: Introduction, Workflow, Bragg’s Law, Applications

Introduction: X-ray crystallography is a tool used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal. The underlying principle is that the crystalline atoms cause a beam of X-rays to diffract into many specific directions. Principle: The atoms of crystal diffract X-rays to several specific directions, and the intensity and angle of the diffracted

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