Reverse vaccinology (RV): Introduction, Principle, Methods, Application, Traditional vaccinology

Introduction: History: Principle: This computational approach is a branch of vaccinomics that is used to design vaccines predicting epitopes from the genetic information of the pathogens. The principle of reverse vaccinology involves the availability of the whole genome sequence of the organism and uses computational analysis to identify genes that encode proteins on the surface […]

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Solid Waste Management: Introduction, Types, Methods, Management, Factors

Introduction: The unavoidable by-product of human activities results in a solid waste which tends to increase with rapid urbanization, improved living standards and changing consumption patterns. It is the unwanted or useless solid materials generated from combined residential, industrial and commercial activities in a given area.  Solid waste management a critical component that include collection,

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Pseudogenes: Introduction, Types, Features

Introduction: Genes, also labelled as “junk” DNA, are inheritable genetic elements whose sequence are naturally similar to functional genes. However, they do not code for protein because they lack coding potential due to the presence of disruptive mutations such as frame shifts, premature stop codons, internal deletion or insertion relative to the normal sequence, Hence,

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Bio fertilizer: Introduction, Types, Applications

Introduction: It is a substance which contains living microorganisms which, when applied to seed, plant surfaces, or soil, colonizes the rhizosphere or the interior of the plant and promotes growth by enhancing the supply, availability, accessibility of several primary nutrients to the host plant. Bacteria, fungi, and mycorrhizae, belonging to the Bacillus, Lactobacillus, Azotobacter, Pseudomonas,

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Entamoeba histolytica: Morphology, Life Cycle, Pathogenesis, Clinical manifestation, Diagnosis

Introduction: It is a common protozoan parasite found in the large intestine of human. It is one of the leading parasitic causes of death in developing countries  It causes amoebic dysentery and liver abscess in human Morphology: The parasite occurs in 3 forms Trophozoite Precyst Cyst Life Cycle: Life cycle of histolytica is relatively simple which is

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Satellite DNA (satDNA):  Introduction, Types, Features, Applications

Introduction: Satellite DNA (satDNA) also known as tandemly repeated DNA (TR-DNA), is the highly repetitive DNA consisting clusters of short repeated sequences i.e., same sequence of nucleotides is repeated many times in tandem within the genome. Generally, it possesses a variable AT-rich repeat which are predominately located at heterochromatic regions, which are found mostly in

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Staining of Microorganism: Negative Staining, Simple Staining, Differential Staining, Simple Staining, Endospore Staining, Lactophenol cotton blue mounting

Introduction: The microbial cells are very small and transparent in nature, so it is very difficult to observe them under microscope. Staining is uses in order to understand the structure and chemical nature of microorganism and make visible. Thus, staining is the method of artificially coloring microorganism to allow it to visualize under the microscope.

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Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy: Introduction, components, mechanism, Side effects

Introduction: It is a type of cancer immunotherapy treatment that controls the ability of T cells (an immune cells) to detect and target specific antigen-expressing cells, including cancer cells. Moreover, this treatment involves genetic engineering of the T-cells of a patient to recognize and in order to attack cancer cells accordingly. In fact, the engineered

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Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR): Introduction, Principle, Instrumentation, Applications

Introduction: FT-IR is the preferred method of infrared spectroscopy. In infrared spectroscopy, IR radiation is passed through a sample in which some of the infrared radiation is absorbed by the sample while other are passed through transmitted. Principle: Instrumentation: The source Glowing black body is mainly source for the emission of infrared energy. This beam

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Mass spectrometry (MS): Introduction, Principle, Instrumentation, Applications

Introduction: It is an analytical tool which is used to measure the mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) of one or more molecules present in an analyte sample. Eventually, the measurement can be applied to calculate the molecular weight of the sample to quantify known compounds, and to determine structure and chemical properties of molecules. The preference for the term “mass

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